Publications on the Mulligan Concept

Research References

This page contains a listing of publications of scientific research specific to the Mulligan Concept.

The Mulligan Concept Teacher Association (MCTA) has a Scientific Committee whose duties are to promote research. The MCTA is committed to validation of the Mulligan Concept via quality research.


Contact

For further information on scientific research specific to the Mulligan Concept, contact:
Wayne Hing
Professor
Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine
Bond University
Queensland 4229
Australia
Tel: +61 7 559 53037
E-Mail: whing@bond.edu.au

Note: The references on this page are updated as new articles are published.


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MCTA Research Award

The Mulligan Concept Teachers Association (MCTA) has identified the need to promote the undertaking of significant research projects and the dissemination of research findings relative to the Mulligan Concept and therefore has formed a MCTA Research Award to provide financial assistance for quality research of a high academic standard that investigates the efficacy or scientific basis for Mulligan Concept treatment techniques.
To find out more about the MCTA Research Award or to download an application & guidelines form go to the Award page.


Mulligan Concept References

Questions or require additional information? Please feel contact the committee chair by E-mail


Research

Here we provide an updated list of references on the Mulligan Concept. Some of the articles are freely available on the Internet. You can also access various articles referring to the site of the Center for Evidence Based Physiotherapy, Maastricht University.


Randomized controlled trials:

  1. Anap D (2012) Mobilization with Movement Technique as an Adjunct to Conventional Physiotherapy in Treatment of Chronic Lateral Epicondylits-A Comparative Study. J Nov Physiother 2:121. doi:10.4172/2165-7025.1000121
  2. Bisset, L (2006) Mobilisation with movement and exercise, corticosteroid injection, or wait and see for tennis elbow: randomised trial. British Medical Journal. doi:10.1136/bmj.38961.584653.AE
  3. Collins, N., B. (2004). The initial effects of a Mulligan’s mobilisation with movement technique on dorsiflexion and pain in subacute ankle sprains. Manual Therapy, 9, 77 – 82.
  4. Doner G. (2012). Evalution of Mulligan’s technique for adhesive capsulitis of the Shoulder. J Rehabil Med doi: 10.2340/16501977-1064
  5. Djordjevic O. (2012). Mobilization with movement and kinesiotaping compared with a supervised exercise program for painful shoulder: results of a clinical trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther;35(6):454-63
  6. Kochar, M. (2002). Effectiveness of a specific physiotherapy regimen on patients with tennis elbow. Physiotherapy, 88(6), 333-341.
  7. Hall, TM (2006) Mulligan bent leg raise technique – a preliminary randomised trial of immediate effects after a single intervention. Manual Therapy 11(2) 130 – 135
  8. Hall, TM (2007) Efficacy of a C1-C2 self-sustained natural apophyseal glide (SNAG) in the management of cervicogenic headache. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 37(3) 100-107
  9. Kachingwe A (2008). Comparison of manual therapy techniques with therapeutic exercise in the treatment of shoulder impingement: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 16(4), 238-247
  10. Kumar, D. (2011). Efficacy of Mulligan Concept (NAGs) on Activity of Daily Living in Cervical Spine Pain: A Randomised Control Trial. Physiotherapy the Journal of the Indian Association of Physiotherapists 9(1): 4-9.
  11. Kumar, D. (2011). Efficacy of Mulligan Concept (NAGs) on Pain at Available End Range in Cervical Spine Pain: A Randomised Control Trial. Indian Journal of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy 5(1): 154-158
  12. Moiler, K (2006) The role of fibular tape in the prevention of ankle injury in basketball: A pilot study. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 9(36), 661-668
  13. Moutzouri, M. (2008). The effects of the Mulligan Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glide (SNAG) mobilisation in the lumbar flexion range of asymptomatic subjects as measured by the Zebris CMS20 3-D motion analysis system. BMC Musculoskeletal disorders 9:131-140.
  14. Paungmali, A. (2003). Hypoalgesic and Sympathoexcitatory effects of Mobilization with Movement for lateral epicondylalgia. Physical Therapy, 83(4), 374-383.
  15. Paungmali, A. (2004). Naloxone fails to antagonize initial hypoalgesic effect of a manual therapy treatment for lateral epicondylalgia. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological therapeutics, 27, 180-185.
  16. Reid, S (2007) Sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAGS) are an effective treatment for cervicogenic dizziness. Manual Therapy, doi:10.1016/j.math.2007.03.006
  17. Teys, P, (2006) The initial effects of a Mulligan’s mobilization with movement technique on range of movement and pressure pain threshold in pain-limited shoulders, Manual Therapy, doi:10.1016/j.math.2006.07.011.
  18. Teys, P. (2013). One-week time course of the effects of Mulligan’s Mobilisation with Movement and taping in painful shoulders. Manual Therapy. PubMed PMID: 23391760.
  19. Vicenzino, B. (2001). Specific manipulative therapy treatment for chronic lateral epicondylalgia produces uniquely characteristic hypoalgesia. Manual Therapy, 6(4), 205-212.
  20. von Piekartz, H. (2013). “Orofacial manual therapy improves cervical movement impairment associated with headache and features of temporomandibular dysfunction: A randomized controlled trial.” Manual Therapy. PubMed PMID: 23302515

Quasi-experimental trials:

  1. Abbott, JH. (2001). Mobilization with movement applied to the elbow affects shoulder range of movement in subjects with lateral epicondylalgia. Manual Therapy, 6(3), 170-177.
  2. Abbott, J. H. (2001). The initial effects of an elbow mobilization with movement technique on grip strength in subjects with lateral epicondylalgia. Manual Therapy, 6(3), 163-169.
  3. Delahunt E. (2012). Joint Mobilization Acutely Improves Landing Kinematics in Chronic Ankle Instability. Med Sci Sports Exerc doi: 10.2340/16501977-1064
  4. Konstantinou, K. (2007) Flexion mobilizations with movement techniques: The immediate effects on range of movement and pain in subjects with low back pain. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2007.01.015
  5. Paungmali, A. (2003). Hypoalgesia induced by elbow manipulation in lateral epicondylalgia does not exhibit tolerance. The Journal of Pain, 4(8), 448-454.
  6. Slater H (2006) Effects of a Manual Therapy technique in experimental lateral epicondylalgia. Manual Therapy 11 (2) 130 – 135

Single-case report:

  1. Abbott, JH. (1998). The effect of elbow mobilisation with movement on shoulder impairment and functional limitation: A case report. Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy, 6(4), 208.
  2. Backstrom, KM. (2002). Mobilization With Movement as an Adjunct Intervention in a Patient With Complicated De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis: A Case Report. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 32(3), 86-94.
  3. Carson, PA. (1999). The rehabilitation of a competitive swimmer with an asymmetrical breastsroke. Manual Therapy, 4(2), 100-106.
  4. DeSantis L. (2006). The Use of Mobilization with Movement in the Treatment of a Patient with Subacromial Impingement: A Case Report. The Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 14(2), 77-87
  5. Folk, B. (2001). Traumatic thumb injury management using mobilization with movement. Manual Therapy, 6(3), 178-182.
  6. Horton, SJ. (2002). Acute locked thoracic spine: treatment with a modified SNAG. Manual Therapy, 7(2), 103-107.
  7. Hsieh, CY. (2002). Mulligan’s mobilization with movement for the thumb: a single case report using magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the positional fault hypothesis. Manual Therapy, 7(1), 44-49.
  8. Lincoln, J. (2000). Clinical instability of the upper cervical spine. Manual Therapy, 5(1), 41-46.
  9. Scaringe, J. (2002). Improved shoulder function after using spinal mobilisation with arm movement in a 50-year old golfer with shoulder, arm, and neck pain. Topics in Clinical Chiropractic; 9(3): 44-53
  10. Woodman, R. (2012) Utilization of mobilization with movement for an apparent sprain of the posterior talofibular ligament: A case report. Manual therapy doi:10.1016/j.math.2012.03.014

Single-case study

  1. O’Brien, T. (1998). A study of the effects of Mulligan’s mobilization with movement treatment of lateral ankle pain using a case study design. Manual Therapy, 3(2), 78-84.
  2. Penso, M (2008). The Effectiveness of Mobilisation with Movement for Chronic Medial Ankle Pain: A Case Study
  3. Vicenzino, B. (1995). Effects of a novel manipulative physiotherapy technique on tennis elbow: a single case study. Manual Therapy, 1, 30-35.

Case series

  1. Dinkins, E. (2012). “Management of restless leg syndrome with use of a traction straight leg raise: A preliminary case series.” Manual Therapy, doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2012.11.002.
  2. Exelby, L. (2001). The locked lumbar facet joint: intervention using mobilizations with movement. Manual Therapy, 6(2), 116-121.
  3. González-Iglesias J. (2013). Mobilisation with movement, thoracic spine manipulation and dry needling for the management of temporomandibular disorders: a prospective case series. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice. DOI: 10.3109/09593985.2013.783895
  4. Hall TM. (2006) Mulligan Traction Straight Leg Raise: A Pilot Study to Investigate effects on range of motion in patients with low back pain. Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy. 2006 14(2):95-100
  5. Hetherington, B. (1996). Lateral ligament strains of the ankle, do they exist? Manual Therapy, 1(5), 274-275.
  6. Hubbard, T. (2007) Anterior positional fault of the fibula after sub-acute lateral ankle sprains, Manual Therapy, doi:10.1016/j.math.2006.09.008
  7. Kaneko, S. (2011). Forearm pain, diagnosed as intersection syndrome, managed by taping: A case series. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 41 (7), 514-519
  8. Kavanagh, J. (1999). Is there a positional fault at the inferior tibiofibular joint in patients with acute or chronic ankle sprains compared to normals? Manual Therapy, 4(1), 19-24.
  9. Takasaki H. (2012) Immediate and short-term effects of Mulligan mobilisation with movement in knee pain and disability associated with knee osteoarthritis – A prospective case series. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice DOI 10.3109/09593985.2012.702854
  10. Wilson, E. (1997). Central facilitation and remote effects: treating both ends of the system. Manual Therapy, 2(2), 165-168.

Non-experimental study

  1. Konstantinou, K. (2002). The use and reported effects of mobilization with movement techniques in low back pain management; a cross-sectional descriptive survey of physiotherapists. Manual Therapy, 7(4), 206-214.

International conference papers

  1. Adkar L (2008) Immediate effectiveness of Maitland’s, Mulligan’s and McKenzie’s approaches in chronic lumbar spondylosis: a randomized clinical trial. 9th Scientific Conference of IFOMT, Rotterdam, Holland
  2. Aikhabbaz, Y (2011). The effect of the fibular repositioning taping technique on standing balance. WCPT, 2011
  3. Alexander, J (2008) The Effectiveness of Achilles Tendinopathy Taping on Rearfoot Posture During Static Weight Bearing and Gait. In proceeding of the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference 2008, San Antonio
  4. Alonso-Blanco C (2008) Muscle trigger point dry needling and Mulligans’ mobilization with movement for the management of chronic lateral epicondylalgia: a case report 9th Scientific Conference of IFOMT, Rotterdam, Holland
  5. Brandy, A. (2005). Manual mobilization of the cervical spine: a step further. The Spine – World Congress on Manual Therapy, Rome, Italy.
  6. Browning, P (2011) The effect of a cervical rotational snag on median nerver extensibility in an asymptomatic population, a within subjects randomised design. WCPT, Holland
  7. Budulmann, K (2012) Musculoskeletal function of the upper cervical spine in children. IFOMPT, Canada
  8. Carpenter, G. (2008). The effects of hip mobilization and mobilization with movement in the Physical Therapy management of a person with lateral hip pain: a case report. American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapist (AAOMPT) Conference.
  9. Dimitrova EB. (2000) Effects of Mulligan’s Pain Release Phenomenon techniques in cases of achilles peritendonitis. In Singer KP, Proceedings of the 7th Scientific Conference of IFOMT, The University of Western Australia, Perth
  10. Dimitrova, E. (2002). Application of Mulligan’s mobilization with movement after shoulder dislocation. In Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Sports Science, Antalya, Turkey.
  11. Dimitrova, E. (2006). Mobilizations with movement in treatment of impingement syndrome in the overhead athlete. In Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of Sports Medicine Association of Greece & 5th Greek-Cypriot Congress of Sports Medicine, Thessaloniki, Greece.
  12. French, H (2011) The effectiveness of exercise with and without manual therapy for hip osteoarthritis: preliminary results of a multi-centre randomised controlled trial. WCPT, Holland
  13. Hall, TM. (2003). Cervicogenic headache: Which motion segments are involved? Paper presented at the In Proceedings of the 13th Biennial Conference of the Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy Association of Australia.
  14. Hing W (2008) The assessment of Mulligan’s Shoulder Mobilisation with Movement’s by diagnostic ultrasound. 9th Scientific Conference of IFOMT, Rotterdam, Holland
  15. Hopper, D. (2007). Does Mulligan ankle tape influence balance performance in athletes with unilateral chronic ankle instability? Proceedings of the Australian Physiotherapy Association Conference Week, Cairns, Australia.
  16. Islam S (2008) Effectiveness of PNF stretching and Mulligan’s BLR technique for increasing the flexibility of hamstring in healthy male subjects: Comparative study. 9th Scientific Conference of IFOMT, Rotterdam, Holland
  17. Mann, TW. (2002). Efficacy of the Mulligan Concept: A review of the evidence base. Paper presented at the IN Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Malaysian Physiotherapy Association.
  18. Mercer, S. (2001). Meniscoids and manual therapy of the ankle. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 12th Biennial conference of the Musculo-skeletal Physiotherapy Association of Australia.
  19. Merlin, D. (2005). Mulligan’s Mobilisation with movement technique for lateral ankle pain and the use of magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the “positional fault” hypothesis. XIV International Congress on Sports Rehabilitation and Traumatology, Bologna, Italy.
  20. Moulson, A. (2005). A preliminary investigation into the relationship between cervical SNAGs and sympathetic nervous system activity in the upper limbs of an asymptomatic population. Second International Conference on Movement Dysfunction, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
  21. Moutzouri, I (2011). Effects of mulligan mobilisation technique «snag» applied on the lumbar spine in the sympathetic nervous system activity of lower limbs. WCPT, Holland
  22. Mulligan, BR. (1988). SNAGS. Paper presented at the Proceedings of IFOMT.
  23. Neto, F. (2005). Immediate effects of hold-relax and Mulligan’s traction straight leg raise techniques on hamstring flexibility. The Spine – World Congress on Manual Therapy, Rome, Italy.
  24. Perry, J (2012) The neurophysiological effects of spinal manipulative therapy on patients with acute and subacute LBP. IFOMPT, Canada
  25. Piekartz, H (2012) Treatment to address Temporomandibular dysfunction in addition to usual care improves cervicogenic headache and cervical mobility. IFOMPT, Canada.
  26. Schoening, S. (2004). Physical therapy management of chronic inversion ankle sprains using the Mulligan ankle technique: a case study. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the American Physical Therapy Association Congress.
  27. Teys, P. (2011) Time course and the effects of taping of a mulligan’s mobilization-withmovement manual therapy technique in pain limited shoulders. WCPT, Holland
  28. Vicenzino, B. (2001). Preliminary evidence of a force threshold required to produce manipulation-induced analgesia. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Conference of the Musculo-skeletal Physiotherapy Association of Australia.
  29. Vicenzino, B. (2001). The initial effects of two Mulligan mobilizations with movement treatment techniques on ankle dorsiflexion. In Proceedings of the Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport, Australia.
  30. Vicenzino, B. (2004). Mobilizations of movement treatment of the ankle changes joint position sense in subjects with recurrent sprains: a preliminary report. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Ankle Symposium, Delaware, USA.
  31. Vicenzino, T. (2008). Age and pain free grip strength may predict outcome to mobilisation with movement and exercise for tennis elbow. In Proceedings of the 9th Scientific Conference of IFOMT, Rotterdam, Holland.

National conference paper

  1. Mack, J. (1997). A new approach in the treatment of tennis elbow. Paper presented at the In Proceedings of NZSM, Christchurch “partners in Action”.

Mulligan Conference presentations

1st International Mulligan Conference Chicago, USA 2009

  1. Hewitt (2009) Mulligan’s Mobilisation with Movement for the peripheral joints: A systematic, critical narrative review.
  2. Gangwal (2009) The effect of a cervical rotational SNAG on median nerve extensibility in an asymptomatic population. A within subjects, randomised, single blind, placebo, controlled design.
  3. Hoffman (2009) Spinal immediate changes in muscle activation strategies during and immediately after a single intervention based on the atm® concept
  4. Osmotherly (2009) Craniovertebral instability testing. Do the tests really reflect the anatomy?
  5. Exelby (2009) The effectiveness of ‘mobilisations with movement’ with and without an auto-mobilisation programme in chronic lateral epicondylagia: a single case study.
  6. Ogston (2009) The effects of an ankle taping technique on balance and a reaching task while standing on one leg in subjects who have ankle instability.
  7. Miller (2009) Effects of mobilization with movement on ankle dorsiflexion: a pilot case report with optical and fluoroscopic motion analysis
  8. Hing (2009) The assessment of Mulligan’s Shoulder Mobilisation with Movement’s by Diagnostic Ultrasound.
  9. Achaltz (2009) The Impact of Mobilization with Movement (MWMs) on Chronic Shoulder Immobility Associated with Functional Deficits
  10. Dinkins (2009) Mulligan Traction Straight Leg Raise: A Pilot Study to Investigate Effects on Individuals with Restless Legs Syndrome.

2nd International Mulligan Conference Porto, Portugal 2011

  1. Cruz A (2011) Immediate effects of a Rocabado’s atlas derotation technique and a Mulligan’s C1/2 sustained natural apophyseal glide (SNAG) in the flexion-rotation test range: a randomized controlled trial
  2. Paco M (2011) Immediate effects of an inferior tibiofibular joint mobilization with movement technique in dorsiflexion and posterior talar glide in individuals with history of ankle sprain: a randomized controlled trial
  3. Neto F (2011) Immediate effects of a talus dorsiflexion mobilization with movement and a passive accessory antero-posterior mobilization in posterior talar glide and dorsiflexion of the foot: a randomized controlled trial
  4. Werstine R (2011) A Fluoroscopic comparison of general and semi-specific traction of the cervical spine
  5. Lennington K (2011) A case-series of sub-acromial impaction syndrome managed by Mulligan shoulder mobilization with movement and exercise
  6. Ruiz O (2011) De Quervain’s disease. Successful symptom resolution using the principles of MWM. A case report
  7. Reid R (2011) Manual therapy treatment of cervicogenic dizziness and pain: preliminary findings of a randomised controlled trial
  8. Takasaki H (2011) A case-series of forearm pain, diagnosed as intersection syndrome, managed by Mulligan taping

Other peer reviewed articles

  1. Brisebios, P. (2007). Mulligan’s mobilization with movement technique produces greater increases than static stretching on passive internal rotation of the hip. Journal of Athletic Training 42(suppl):S122.
  2. Budulmann, K (2013) Is there a difference in head posture and movement in children with and without pediatric headache. European Journal of Pediatrics. DOI 10.1007/s00431-013-2046-z
  3. Budulmann, K (2013) A normative study of cervical range of motion measures including the flexion-rotation test in asymptomatic children: side-to-side variability and pain provocation. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy. DOI 10.1179/2042618612Y.0000000026
  4. Chou, E (2013). Lower leg neuromuscular changes following fibular reposition taping in individuals with chronic ankle instability. Manual Therapy. PubMed PMID: 23302515.
  5. Edmonston, SJ. (1997). Thoracic spine, anatomical and biomechanical considerations for manual therapy. Manual Therapy, 2(3), 132-143.
  6. Exelby, L. (1995). Mobilisation with movement: a personal view. Physiotherapy, 81(12), 724-729.
  7. Exelby, L. (1996). Peripheral mobilisation with movement. Manual Therapy, 1(13), 118-126.
  8. Exelby, L. (2002). The Mulligan Concept: Its application in the management of spinal conditions. Manual Therapy, 7(2), 64-70.
  9. Fuji, M. (2009). Does distal tibiofibular joint mobilization decrease limitation of ankle dorsiflexion? Manual Therapy, 15(1):1-5.
  10. Guo, L. (2006). Initial effects of the ankle dorsiflexion mobilization with movement on ankle range of motion and limb coordination in young healthy subjects. Formosan Journal of Physical Therapy 31(3):173-181.
  11. Hall, TM. (2001). Effects of the Mulligan traction straight leg raise technique on range of movement. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 9(3), 128-133.
  12. Hall TM. (2004) The flexion-rotation test and active cervical mobility – A comparative measurement study in cervicogenic headache. Manual Therapy 9(4): 197-204
  13. Hall, TM. (2006) Mulligan’s traction straight leg raise: A pilot study to investigate effects on range of motion in patients with low back pain. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 14(2):95-100
  14. Hall, TM (2008) Inter-tester reliability and diagnostic validity of the cervical flexion-rotation test. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 31:293-300
  15. Hall TM, (2008). Clinical evaluation of cervicogenic headache. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 16(2), 73-80
  16. Hall TM, (2010). Long-term stability and minimal detectable change of the cervical flexion-rotation test, Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 40(4): 225-229
  17. Hall TM, (2010). The relationship between cervicogenic headache and impairment determined by the cervical flexion-rotation test, Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2010.09.002
  18. Hall TM, (2010). Comparative analysis and diagnostic accuracy of the cervical flexion-rotation test. Journal of Headache and Pain. DOI 10.1007/s10194-010-0222-3
  19. Hall TM (2010). The influence of lower cervical joint pain on range of motion and interpretation of the flexion-rotation test. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy. 18(3): 126-131
  20. Hall TM (2010). Reliability of manual examination and frequency of symptomatic cervical motion segment dysfunction in cervicogenic headache. Manual Therapy. doi:10.1016/j.math.2010.06.002
  21. Hearn, A. (2002). Cervical Snags: a biomechanical analysis. Manual Therapy, 7(2), 71-79.
  22. Hing W. (2009) Mulligan’s Mobilization with Movement: A Systematic Review. The Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy. 17:2. p39-65
  23. Ho, K (2008) Displacement of the head of humerus while performing “mobilization with movement” in glenohumeral joint: A cadaver study. Manual Therapy doi:10.1016/j.math.2008.01.008
  24. Hoch MC (2010), The effectiveness of mobilization with movement at improving dorsiflexion after ankle sprain, J Sport Rehabil;19(2):226-32.
  25. Hopper D. (2009). The influence of Mulligan ankle taping during balance performance in subjects with unilateral chronic ankle instability. Physical Therapy in Sport. doi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2009.07.005
  26. Hubbard T. (2006) Fibular position in individuals with self-reported chronic ankle instability. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 36(1): 3-9.
  27. Hubbard T (2007) Anterior positional fault of the fibula after sub-acute lateral ankle sprains. Manual Therapy, doi:10.1016/j.math.2006.09.008
  28. Johnson J. (1997) Mobilisation with movement: an adjunct to traditional treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Journal of Sports Physiotherapy 1 (25) 76
  29. Konstantinou, K. (2002). The use and reported effects of mobilization with movement techniques in low back pain management: a cross-sectional descriptive survey of physiotherapists. Manual Therapy 7(4):206-214.
  30. Mann, T. W. (2001). Causes of complications from cervical spine manipulation. Physiotherapy, 47, 255-266.
  31. McLean, S. (2002). A pilot study of the manual force levels required to produce manipulation induced hypoalgesia. Clinical Biomechanics, 17, 304-308.
  32. Michel, P. (2000). Total glenohumeral joint replacement: totally different situation. Manual Therapy, 5(2), 108-112.
  33. Miller, J. (1999). The Mulligan Concept – the next step in the evolution of manual therapy. Canadian Physiotherapy Association Orthopaedic Division Review, March/April 9-13.
  34. Miller, J. (2000). Mulligan concept – management of tennis elbow. Canadian Physiotherapy Association Orthopaedic Division Review, May/June 45-46.
  35. Moulston A, A preliminary investigation into the relationship between cervical SNAGS and sympathetic nervous system activity in the upper limbs of asymptomatic population. Manual therapy 2006 11 214-224
  36. Mulligan, BR. (1957). The acute wryneck. New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy, May 1957, May, 1957.
  37. Mulligan, BR. (1974). The painful stiff shoulder. New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy, 4(7).
  38. Mulligan, BR. (1982). NAGS – Modified mobilisation techniques for the cervical and upper thoracic spines. New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy, August 1982.
  39. Mulligan, BR. (1989). Pain release phenomenon techniques – PRPS. New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy, April 1989.
  40. Mulligan, BR. (1992). Extremity joint mobilisations combined with movement. New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy, April 1992.
  41. Mulligan, BR. (1993). Mobilisation with Movement. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 1(4), 154-156.
  42. Mulligan, BR. (1994). Spinal mobilisation with arm movement (further mobilisation with movement). Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 2(2), 75-77.
  43. Mulligan, BR. (1995). Spinal mobilisation with leg movement (further mobilisation with movement). Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 3(1), 25-27.
  44. Mulligan, BR. (1996). Mobilisation with movement for the hip joint to restore internal rotation and flexion. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 4(1), 35-37.
  45. Mulligan, BR. (1997). Update on spinal mobilisations with leg movement. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 5(4), 184-187.
  46. Mulligan BR. (2003) The painful dysfunctional shoulder. A new treatment approach using ‘Mobilisation with Movement’ The New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy 31 (3) 140-142
  47. Naik, V. (2007). Effectiveness of Maitland versus Mulligan mobilization techniques after post surgical management of colles fracture. Indian Journal of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, 1(4):14-18.
  48. Ogince, M. (2006). Mark Ogince et al., The diagnostic validity of the cervical flexion–rotation test in C1/2-related cervicogenic headache, Manual Therapy, doi:10.1016/j.math.2006.06.016.
  49. Pagorek, S. (2009) Effect of Manual Mobilization With Movement on Pain and Strength in Adults With Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 18, 1-10
  50. Rivett, DA. (1997). Preventing neurovascular complications of cervical spine manipulation. Physical Therapy Review, 2, 29-37.
  51. Rivett, DA. (1998). Negative pre-manipulative vertebral artery testing despite complete occlusion: a case of false negativity? Manual Therapy, 3(2), 102-107.
  52. Smith, K (2008) The influence of age, gender, lifestyle factors and sub-clinical neck pain on the cervical flexion–rotation test and cervical range of motion. Manual Therapy doi:10.1016/j.math.2007.07.005
  53. Stevens, G. (1995). Lateral epicondylitis. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 3(2), 50-58.
  54. Takasaki, H (2009) Cervical segmental motion induced by shoulder abduction assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Spine;34:E122–E126
  55. Takasaki, H (2010) Normal kinematics of the upper cervical spine during the Flexion-Rotation Test – in vivo measurements using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Manual Therapy, doi:10.1016/j.math.2010.07.005
  56. Teys, P. (2006). A preliminary study of the effects of a shoulder mobilisation with movement. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 9(Supplement 1):24.
  57. Vicenzino B. (2003) Lateral epicondylalgia: a musculoskeletal physiotherapy perspective. Manual Therapy 8(2) 66-79
  58. Vicenzino B. (2006) Mulligan’s mobilization-with-movement, positional faults and pain relief: Current concepts from a critical review of literature, Manual Therapy, doi:10.1016/j.math.2006.07.012.
  59. Vicenzino, B. (2007) Joint Manipulation in the Management of Lateral Epicondylalgia: A Clinical Commentary, Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 15(1): 50-56
  60. Yang JI. (2009). Mobilization techniques in subjects with frozen shoulder syndrome: randomized multiple treatment trial. Phys Ther.87:1307–1315

Non peer reviewed articles

  1. Wilson, E. (1994a). Mobilisation with movement: an update. In Touch, 73, 10-11.
  2. Wilson, E. (1994b). Peripheral joint mobilisation with movement and its effects on adverse neural tension. Journal of the Manipulative Association of Chartered Physiotherapists (UK), 2, 35-39.
  3. Wilson, E. (1995). Mobilisations with movement and adverse neural tension: an exploration of possible links. Manipulative Physiotherapist 27:1, 27(1).
  4. Woodman, R (2011) An introduction to the examination and treatment of non-surgical soft tissue lesions of the wrist and hand, integrating the approaches of Cyriax and Mulligan. Physiotimes, 3(3)
  5. Woodman, R (2011) Integrating the Cyriax and Mulligan approach for the examination to the examination and treatment of soft tissue injuries around the ankle. Physiotimes, 2 (5)
  6. Woodman, R (2011) Application of the Mulligan Approach to the Lumbar Mechanical Derangement. Physiotimes, 2, (4)
  7. Woodman, R (2010) To SNAG or not to SNAG the Cervical Spine. Physiotimes, 1 (5)

Related books

  1. Vicenzino, B. (2011) Mobilisation with Movement: The art and the science. Elsevier, Sydney
  2. Hall, TM. (2003). A chronic case of mechanics elbow. In M. Jones & D. Rivett (Eds.), In Clinical reasoning for physical therapists: Churchill Livingstone.
  3. Mulligan, BR. (1994). SNAGS: Mobilisations of the spine with active movement. In G. Grieve (Ed.), In Modern Manual Therapy (2nd ed., pp. 733-743). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston.
  4. Mulligan BR. (2003) Manual Therapy NAGS SNAGS MWMS etc. 5th Edition. Plane View services Ltd. New Zealand.
  5. Mulligan BR. (2003) Self Treatments for Back, Neck and Limbs. Plane View Services Ltd. New Zealand
  6. Reordan, D. (2012) The Mulligan Concept. In Chevan J, Clapis C (Eds.), Physical Therapy Management of Low Back Pain: A Case-Based Approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning
  7. Wilson, E. (2002). The Mulligan Concept: NAGs, SNAGs, MWMs, etc. In L. Chaitow (Ed.), In Positional Release Techniques (2nd ed.). London: Churchill Livingstone.

Other language papers

  1. Beyerlein, C. (2002). Geschichte der spinalen Manipulation von Hippokrates bis heute. Krankengymnastik – Zeitschrift für Physiotherapeuten, 54(11), 1780-1784.
  2. Beyerlein, CH (2002). Effektivität der Mulligan-Straight-Leg-Raise-Traktionstechnik auf die Beweglichkeit bei Patienten mit Rückenschmerzen. Manuelle Therapie, 6, 61-68.
  3. Claassen R. (2001) Het Mulligan Concept: een veilige en effectieve manier van mobiliseren.
  4. Wetenschappelijk tijdschrift voor Fysische Therapie 2(2):7-17
  5. Schafer, A. (2005). “Mulligan bent leg raise technique—a preliminary randomized trial of immediate effects after a single intervention.” Manual Therapy Accepted for publication.

Updated: 06/11/2013