This page contains a listing of publications of scientific research specific to the Mulligan Concept.
RCTs | Quasi-Experimental Trials | Single Case Report | Single Case Study | Case Series | Non-Experimental Study | International Conference Papers | National Conference Paper | Mulligan Conference Paper | Other Peer Reviewed Articles | Non-Peer Reviewed Articles | Related Books | Other Language Papers
The Mulligan Concept Teacher Association (MCTA) has a Scientific Committee whose duties are to promote research. The MCTA is committed to validation of the Mulligan Concept via quality research.
For further information on scientific research specific to the Mulligan Concept, contact:
Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine
Tel: +61 7 559 53037
Note: The references on this page are updated as new articles are published.
MCTA Research Award
The Mulligan Concept Teachers Association (MCTA) has identified the need to promote the undertaking of significant research projects and the dissemination of research findings relative to the Mulligan Concept and therefore has formed a MCTA Research Award to provide financial assistance for quality research of a high academic standard that investigates the efficacy or scientific basis for Mulligan Concept treatment techniques.
To find out more about the MCTA Research Award or to download an application & guidelines form go to the Award page.
Questions or require additional information? Please feel contact the committee chair by E-mail
Here we provide an updated list of references on the Mulligan Concept. Some of the articles are freely available on the Internet. You can also access various articles referring to the site of the Center for Evidence Based Physiotherapy, Maastricht University.
1. Anap D (2012) Mobilization with Movement Technique as an Adjunct to Conventional Physiotherapy in
Treatment of Chronic Lateral Epicondylits-A Comparative Study. J Nov Physiother 2:121. doi:10.4172/2165-
2. Bisset, L (2006) Mobilisation with movement and exercise, corticosteroid injection, or wait and see for tennis
elbow: randomised trial. British Medical Journal. doi:10.1136/bmj.38961.584653.AE
3. Collins, N., B. (2004). The initial effects of a Mulligan’s mobilisation with movement technique on dorsiflexion
and pain in subacute ankle sprains. Manual Therapy, 9, 77 – 82.
4. Cruz-Diaz D. (2014). Effects of joint mobilization on chronic ankle instability: a randomized controlled trial.
Disability and rehabilitation:1-10
5. Coombes BK (2013) Effect of corticosteroid injection, physiotherapy, or both on clinical outcomes in patients
with unilateral lateral epicondylalgia: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 309: 461-469. doi:
6. Doner G. (2012). Evalution of Mulligan’s technique for adhesive capsulitis of the Shoulder. J Rehabil Med doi:
7. Djordjevic O. (2012). Mobilization with movement and kinesiotaping compared with a supervised exercise
program for painful shoulder: results of a clinical trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther;35(6):454-63
8. Kochar, M. (2002). Effectiveness of a specific physiotherapy regimen on patients with tennis elbow.
Physiotherapy, 88(6), 333-341.
9. Ganesh GS. (2014). Effectiveness of mobilization therapy and exercises in mechanical neck pain. Physiotherapy
theory and practice. 2014:1-8
10. Hall, TM (2006) Mulligan bent leg raise technique—a preliminary randomized trial of immediate effects after a
single intervention. Manual Therapy 11(2) 130 – 135
11. Hall, TM (2007) Efficacy of a C1-C2 self-sustained natural apophyseal glide (SNAG) in the management of
cervicogenic headache. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 37(3) 100-107
12. Izquierdo Perez H (2014). Is one better than another?: A randomized clinical trial of manual therapy for
patients with chronic neck pain. Man Ther. 2014 Jun;19(3):215-21. PubMed PMID: 24467843.
13. Kachingwe A (2008). Comparison of manual therapy techniques with therapeutic exercise in the treatment of
shoulder impingement: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 16(4),
14. Kumar, D. (2011). Efficacy of Mulligan Concept (NAGs) on Activity of Daily Living in Cervical Spine Pain: A
Randomised Control Trial. Physiotherapy the Journal of the Indian Association of Physiotherapists 9(1): 4-9.
15. Kumar, D. (2011). Efficacy of Mulligan Concept (NAGs) on Pain at Available End Range in Cervical Spine Pain: A
Randomised Control Trial. Indian Journal of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy 5(1): 154-158
16. Marron-Gomez D. (2014) The effect of two mobilization techniques on dorsiflexion in people with chronic ankle
instability. Physical therapy in sport : official journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Sports
17. Mhatre B, (2013) Which is the better method to improve “perceived hamstrings tightness” – Exercises targeting
neural tissue mobility or exercises targeting hamstrings muscle extensibility? IJOM 16: 153-162.
18. Moiler, K (2006) The role of fibular tape in the prevention of ankle injury in basketball: A pilot study. Journal of
Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 9(36), 661-668
19. Moutzouri, M. (2008). The effects of the Mulligan Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glide (SNAG) mobilisation in
the lumbar flexion range of asymptomatic subjects as measured by the Zebris CMS20 3-D motion analysis
system. BMC Musculoskeletal disorders 9:131-140.
20. Nam CW (2013). Effects of the MWM Technique Accompanied by Trunk Stabilization Exercises on Pain and
Physical Dysfunctions Caused by Degenerative Osteoarthritis. Journal of physical therapy science.
Sep;25(9):1137-40. PubMed PMID: 24259931. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3818775.
21. Paungmali, A. (2003). Hypoalgesic and Sympathoexcitatory effects of Mobilization with Movement for lateral
epicondylalgia. Physical Therapy, 83(4), 374-383.
22. Paungmali, A. (2004). Naloxone fails to antagonize initial hypoalgesic effect of a manual therapy treatment for
lateral epicondylalgia. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological therapeutics, 27, 180-185.
23. Reid, S (2008) Sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAGS) are an effective treatment for cervicogenic
dizziness. Manual Therapy. 13:357-66
24. Reid SA. (2014) Comparison of mulligan sustained natural apophyseal glides and maitland mobilizations for
treatment of cervicogenic dizziness: a randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2014;94:466-76.
25. Reid SA (2014). Effects of Cervical Spine Manual Therapy on Range of Motion, Head Repositioning and Balance
in Participants with Cervicogenic Dizziness: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. PubMed
26. Reid SA. (2014) Manual therapy for cervicogenic dizziness: Long-term outcomes of a randomised trial. Manual
27. Reid SA (2012). Efficacy of manual therapy treatments for people with cervicogenic dizziness and pain: protocol
of a randomised controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord;13:201. PubMed PMID: 23078200. Pubmed Central
28. Shin EJ. The effect of sustained natural apophyseal glides on headache, duration and cervical function in women
with cervicogenic headache. Journal of exercise rehabilitation. 2014 Apr;10(2):131-5. PubMed PMID: 24877050.
Pubmed Central PMCID: 4025547
29. Son JH. (2014) The effect of sacroiliac joint mobilization on pelvic deformation and the static balance ability of
female university students with si joint dysfunction. Journal of physical therapy science;26:845-8
30. Teys, P, (2006) The initial effects of a Mulligan’s mobilization with movement technique on range of movement
and pressure pain threshold in pain-limited shoulders, Manual Therapy, doi:10.1016/j.math.2006.07.011.
31. Teys, P. (2013). One-week time course of the effects of Mulligan’s Mobilisation with Movement and taping in
painful shoulders. Manual Therapy. PubMed PMID: 23391760.
32. Vicenzino, B. (2001). Specific manipulative therapy treatment for chronic lateral epicondylalgia produces
uniquely characteristic hypoalgesia. Manual Therapy, 6(4), 205-212.
33. Vicenzino B, (2009) Initial changes in posterior talar glide and dorsiflexion of the ankle after mobilization with
movement in individuals with recurrent ankle sprain. Orthopaedic Division Review 2009: 35-42.
34. von Piekartz, H. (2013). “Orofacial manual therapy improves cervical movement impairment associated with
headache and features of temporomandibular dysfunction: A randomized controlled trial.” Manual Therapy.
PubMed PMID: 23302515
35. Abbott, JH. (2001). Mobilization with movement applied to the elbow affects shoulder range of movement in
subjects with lateral epicondylalgia. Manual Therapy, 6(3), 170-177.
36. Abbott, J. H. (2001). The initial effects of an elbow mobilization with movement technique on grip strength in
subjects with lateral epicondylalgia. Manual Therapy, 6(3), 163-169.
37. Amro A. (2010) The effects of Mulligan mobilisation with movement and taping techniques on pain, grip
strength, and function in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal 28: 19-23
38. Delahunt E. (2012). Joint Mobilization Acutely Improves Landing Kinematics in Chronic Ankle Instability. Med
Sci Sports Exerc. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1064
39. Konstantinou, K. (2007) Flexion mobilizations with movement techniques: The immediate effects on range of
movement and pain in subjects with low back pain. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy,
40. Paungmali, A. (2003). Hypoalgesia induced by elbow manipulation in lateral epicondylalgia does not exhibit
tolerance. The Journal of Pain, 4(8), 448-454.
41. Slater H (2006) Effects of a Manual Therapy technique in experimental lateral epicondylalgia. Manual Therapy
11 (2) 130 – 135
42. Abbott, JH. (1998). The effect of elbow mobilisation with movement on shoulder impairment and functional
limitation: A case report. Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy, 6(4), 208.
43. Aiken DL. (2013) The use of functional and traditional mobilization interventions in a patient with chronic
thoracic pain: a case report. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 21: 134-141
44. Backstrom, KM. (2002). Mobilization With Movement as an Adjunct Intervention in a Patient With Complicated
De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis: A Case Report. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 32(3), 86-94.
45. Carson, PA. (1999). The rehabilitation of a competitive swimmer with an asymmetrical breastsroke. Manual
Therapy, 4(2), 100-106.
46. DeSantis L. (2006). The Use of Mobilization with Movement in the Treatment of a Patient with Subacromial
Impingement: A Case Report. The Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 14(2), 77-87
47. Folk, B. (2001). Traumatic thumb injury management using mobilization with movement. Manual Therapy,
48. Horton, SJ. (2002). Acute locked thoracic spine: treatment with a modified SNAG. Manual Therapy, 7(2), 103-
49. Hsieh, CY. (2002). Mulligan’s mobilization with movement for the thumb: a single case report using magnetic
resonance imaging to evaluate the positional fault hypothesis. Manual Therapy, 7(1), 44-49.
50. Lincoln, J. (2000). Clinical instability of the upper cervical spine. Manual Therapy, 5(1), 41-46.
51. Malo-Urries M. Clinical and ultrasonographic evidence of a proximal positional fault of the radius. A case report.
Man Ther. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2014.02.0032014.
52. Mau H. (2014) A modified mobilization-with-movement to treat a lateral ankle sprain. International journal of
sports physical therapy;9:540-8.
53. Reid SA. (2014) Effects of cervical spine manual therapy on range of motion, head repositioning, and balance in
participants with cervicogenic dizziness: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of physical medicine and
54. Richardson C (2009) Treatment of cervicogenic headaches using Mulligan ‘SNAGS’ and postural reeducation: A
case report. Orthopaedic Physical Therapy Practice 21: 33-38.
55. Scaringe, J. (2002). Improved shoulder function after using spinal mobilisation with arm movement in a 50-
year old golfer with shoulder, arm, and neck pain. Topics in Clinical Chiropractic; 9(3): 44-53
56. Woodman, R. (2012) Utilization of mobilization with movement for an apparent sprain of the posterior
talofibular ligament: A case report. Manual therapy doi:10.1016/j.math.2012.03.014
57. O’Brien, T. (1998). A study of the effects of Mulligan’s mobilization with movement treatment of lateral ankle
pain using a case study design. Manual Therapy, 3(2), 78-84.
58. Penso, M (2008). The Effectiveness of Mobilisation with Movement for Chronic Medial Ankle Pain: A Case Study
59. Vicenzino, B. (1995). Effects of a novel manipulative physiotherapy technique on tennis elbow: a single case
study. Manual Therapy, 1, 30-35.
60. Creighton D, (2007) Use of anterior tibial translation in the management of patellofemoral pain syndrome in
older patients: a case series. The Journal of manual & manipulative therapy. 2007;15:216-24.
61. Dinkins, E. (2012). “Management of restless leg syndrome with use of a traction straight leg raise: A
preliminary case series.” Manual Therapy, doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2012.11.002.
62. Exelby, L. (2001). The locked lumbar facet joint: intervention using mobilizations with movement. Manual
Therapy, 6(2), 116-121.
63. Gilbreath JP (2014). The effects of mobilization with movement on dorsiflexion range of motion, dynamic
balance, and self-reported function in individuals with chronic ankle instability. Man Ther. 2014 Apr;19(2):152-
7. PubMed PMID: 24834500
64. González-Iglesias J. (2013). Mobilisation with movement, thoracic spine manipulation and dry needling for the
management of temporomandibular disorders: a prospective case series. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice.
65. Hall TM. (2006) Mulligan Traction Straight Leg Raise: A Pilot Study to Investigate effects on range of motion in
patients with low back pain. Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy. 2006 14(2):95-100
66. Hetherington, B. (1996). Lateral ligament strains of the ankle, do they exist? Manual Therapy, 1(5), 274-275.
67. Hubbard, T. (2007) Anterior positional fault of the fibula after sub-acute lateral ankle sprains, Manual Therapy,
68. Kavanagh, J. (1999). Is there a positional fault at the inferior tibiofibular joint in patients with acute or chronic
ankle sprains compared to normals? Manual Therapy, 4(1), 19-24.
69. Kaneko, S. (2011). Forearm pain, diagnosed as intersection syndrome, managed by taping: A case series.
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 41 (7), 514-519
70. Takasaki H. (2012) Immediate and short-term effects of Mulligan mobilisation with movement in knee pain and
disability associated with knee osteoarthritis – A prospective case series. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice DOI
71. Wilson, E. (1997). Central facilitation and remote effects: treating both ends of the system. Manual Therapy,
72. Konstantinou, K. (2002). The use and reported effects of mobilization with movement techniques in low back
pain management; a cross-sectional descriptive survey of physiotherapists. Manual Therapy, 7(4), 206-214.
73. Adkar L (2008) Immediate effectiveness of Maitland’s, Mulligan’s and McKenzie’s approaches in chronic
lumbar spondylosis: a randomized clinical trial. 9th Scientific Conference of IFOMT, Rotterdam, Holland
74. Aikhabbaz, Y (2011). The effect of the fibular repositioning taping technique on standing balance. WCPT,
75. Alexander, J (2008) The Effectiveness of Achilles Tendinopathy Taping on Rearfoot Posture During Static
Weight Bearing and Gait. In proceeding of the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference 2008,
76. Alonso-Blanco C (2008) Muscle trigger point dry needling and Mulligans’ mobilization with movement for the
management of chronic lateral epicondylalgia: a case report 9th Scientific Conference of IFOMT, Rotterdam,
77. Brandy, A. (2005). Manual mobilization of the cervical spine: a step further. The Spine – World Congress on
Manual Therapy, Rome, Italy.
78. Browning, P (2011) The effect of a cervical rotational snag on median nerver extensibility in an asymptomatic
population, a within subjects randomised design. WCPT, Holland
79. Budulmann, K (2012) Musculoskeletal function of the upper cervical spine in children. IFOMPT, Canada
80. Carpenter, G. (2008). The effects of hip mobilization and mobilization with movement in the Physical Therapy
management of a person with lateral hip pain: a case report. American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual
Physical Therapist (AAOMPT) Conference.
81. Dimitrova EB. (2000) Effects of Mulligan’s Pain Release Phenomenon techniques in cases of achilles
peritendonitis. In Singer KP, Proceedings of the 7th Scientific Conference of IFOMT, The University of Western
82. Dimitrova, E. (2002). Application of Mulligan’s mobilization with movement after shoulder dislocation. In
Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Sports Science, Antalya, Turkey.
83. Dimitrova, E. (2006). Mobilizations with movement in treatment of impingement syndrome in the overhead
athlete. In Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of Sports Medicine Association of Greece & 5th
Greek-Cypriot Congress of Sports Medicine, Thessaloniki, Greece.
84. French, H (2011) The effectiveness of exercise with and without manual therapy for hip osteoarthritis:
preliminary results of a multi-centre randomised controlled trial. WCPT, Holland
85. Hall, TM. (2003). Cervicogenic headache: Which motion segments are involved? Paper presented at the In
Proceedings of the 13th Biennial Conference of the Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy Association of Australia.
86. Hing W (2008) The assessment of Mulligan’s Shoulder Mobilisation with Movement’s by diagnostic ultrasound.
9th Scientific Conference of IFOMT, Rotterdam, Holland
87. Hopper, D. (2007). Does Mulligan ankle tape influence balance performance in athletes with unilateral chronic
ankle instability? Proceedings of the Australian Physiotherapy Association Conference Week, Cairns, Australia.
88. Islam S (2008) Effectiveness of PNF stretching and Mulligan’s BLR technique for increasing the flexibility of
hamstring in healthy male subjects: Comparative study. 9th Scientific Conference of IFOMT, Rotterdam,
89. Mann, TW. (2002). Efficacy of the Mulligan Concept: A review of the evidence base. Paper presented at the IN
Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Malaysian Physiotherapy Association.
90. Mercer, S. (2001). Meniscoids and manual therapy of the ankle. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the
12th Biennial conference of the Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy Association of Australia.
91. Merlin, D. (2005). Mulligan’s Mobilisation with movement technique for lateral ankle pain and the use of
magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the “positional fault” hypothesis. XIV International Congress on
Sports Rehabilitation and Traumatology, Bologna, Italy.
92. Moulson, A. (2005). A preliminary investigation into the relationship between cervical SNAGs and sympathetic
nervous system activity in the upper limbs of an asymptomatic population. Second International Conference
on Movement Dysfunction, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
93. Moutzouri, I (2011). Effects of mulligan mobilisation technique «snag» applied on the lumbar spine in the
sympathetic nervous system activity of lower limbs. WCPT, Holland
94. Mulligan, BR. (1988). SNAGS. Paper presented at the Proceedings of IFOMT.
95. Neto, F. (2005). Immediate effects of hold-relax and Mulligan’s traction straight leg raise techniques on
hamstring flexibility. The Spine – World Congress on Manual Therapy, Rome, Italy.
96. Perry, J (2012) The neurophysiological effects of spinal manipulative therapy on patients with acute and
subacute LBP. IFOMPT, Canada
97. Piekartz, H (2012) Treatment to address Temporomandibular dysfunction in addition to usual care improves
cervicogenic headache and cervical mobility. IFOMPT, Canada.
98. Schoening, S. (2004). Physical therapy management of chronic inversion ankle sprains using the Mulligan
ankle technique: a case study. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the American Physical Therapy
99. Teys, P. (2011) Time course and the effects of taping of a mulligan’s mobilization-with movement manual
therapy technique in pain limited shoulders. WCPT, Holland
100. Vicenzino, B. (2001). Preliminary evidence of a force threshold required to produce manipulation-induced
analgesia. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Conference of the Musculo-skeletal
Physiotherapy Association of Australia.
101. Vicenzino, B. (2001). The initial effects of two Mulligan mobilizations with movement treatment techniques on
ankle dorsiflexion. In Proceedings of the Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport, Australia.
102. Vicenzino, B. (2004). Mobilizations of movement treatment of the ankle changes joint position sense in
subjects with recurrent sprains: a preliminary report. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Ankle Symposium,
103. Vicenzino, T. (2008). Age and pain free grip strength may predict outcome to mobilisation with movement
and exercise for tennis elbow. In Proceedings of the 9th Scientific Conference of IFOMT, Rotterdam, Holland.
104. Mack, J. (1997). A new approach in the treatment of tennis elbow. Paper presented at the In Proceedings of
NZSM, Christchurch “partners in Action”.
1st International Mulligan Conference Chicago, USA 2009
105. Hewitt (2009) Mulligan’s Mobilisation with Movement for the peripheral joints: A systematic, critical narrative
106. Gangwal (2009) The effect of a cervical rotational SNAG on median nerve extensibility in an asymptomatic
population. A within subjects, randomised, single blind, placebo, controlled design.
107. Hoffman (2009) Spinal immediate changes in muscle activation strategies during and immediately after a
single intervention based on the atm® concept
108. Osmotherly (2009) Craniovertebral instability testing. Do the tests really reflect the anatomy?
109. Exelby (2009) The effectiveness of ‘mobilisations with movement’ with and without an auto-mobilisation
programme in chronic lateral epicondylagia: a single case study.
110. Ogston (2009) The effects of an ankle taping technique on balance and a reaching task while standing on one
leg in subjects who have ankle instability.
111. Miller (2009) Effects of mobilization with movement on ankle dorsiflexion: a pilot case report with optical and
fluoroscopic motion analysis
112. Hing (2009) The assessment of Mulligan’s Shoulder Mobilisation with Movement’s by Diagnostic Ultrasound.
113. Achaltz (2009) The Impact of Mobilization with Movement (MWMs) on Chronic Shoulder Immobility Associated
with Functional Deficits
114. Dinkins (2009) Mulligan Traction Straight Leg Raise: A Pilot Study to Investigate Effects on Individuals with
Restless Legs Syndrome.
2nd International Mulligan Conference Porto, Portugal 2011
115. Cruz A (2011) Immediate effects of a Rocabado’s atlas derotation technique and a Mulligan’s C1/2 sustained
natural apophyseal glide (SNAG) in the flexion-rotation test range: a randomized controlled trial
116. Paco M (2011) Immediate effects of an inferior tibiofibular joint mobilization with movement technique in
dorsiflexion and posterior talar glide in individuals with history of ankle sprain: a randomized controlled trial
117. Neto F (2011) Immediate effects of a talus dorsiflexion mobilization with movement and a passive accessory
antero-posterior mobilization in posterior talar glide and dorsiflexion of the foot: a randomized controlled trial
118. Werstine R (2011) A Fluoroscopic comparison of general and semi-specific traction of the cervical spine
119. Lennington K (2011) A case-series of sub-acromial impaction syndrome managed by Mulligan shoulder
mobilization with movement and exercise
120. Ruiz O (2011) De Quervain’s disease. Successful symptom resolution using the principles of MWM. A case
121. Reid R (2011) Manual therapy treatment of cervicogenic dizziness and pain: preliminary findings of a
randomised controlled trial
122. Takasaki H (2011) A case-series of forearm pain, diagnosed as intersection syndrome, managed by Mulligan
123. Baker RT. (2013) The Mulligan Concept: mobilizations with movement. International Journal of Athletic
Therapy and Training 18: 30-34.
124. Brisebios, P. (2007). Mulligan’s mobilization with movement technique produces greater increases than static
stretching on passive internal rotation of the hip. Journal of Athletic Training 42(suppl):S122.
125. Budelmann, K (2013) Is there a difference in head posture and movement in children with and without
pediatric headache. European Journal of Pediatrics. DOI 10.1007/s00431-013-2046-z
126. Budelmann, K (2013) A normative study of cervical range of motion measures including the flexion-rotation
test in asymptomatic children: side-to-side variability and pain provocation. Journal of Manual & Manipulative
Therapy. DOI 10.1179/2042618612Y.0000000026
127. Chou, E (2013). Lower leg neuromuscular changes following fibular reposition taping in individuals with
chronic ankle instability. Manual Therapy. PubMed PMID: 23302515.
128. Delahunt E, (2010) Effect of taping on actual and perceived dynamic postural stability in persons with chronic
ankle instability. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 91: 1383-1389.
129. Edmonston, SJ. (1997). Thoracic spine, anatomical and biomechanical considerations for manual therapy.
Manual Therapy, 2(3), 132-143.
130. Exelby, L. (1995). Mobilisation with movement: a personal view. Physiotherapy, 81(12), 724-729.
131. Exelby, L. (1996). Peripheral mobilisation with movement. Manual Therapy, 1(13), 118-126.
132. Exelby, L. (2002). The Mulligan Concept: Its application in the management of spinal conditions. Manual
Therapy, 7(2), 64-70.
133. Fuji, M. (2009). Does distal tibiofibular joint mobilization decrease limitation of ankle dorsiflexion? Manual
134. Guo, L. (2006). Initial effects of the ankle dorsiflexion mobilization with movement on ankle range of motion
and limb coordination in young healthy subjects. Formosan Journal of Physical Therapy 31(3):173-181.
135. Grondin F. (2014) Upper cervical range of motion is impaired in patients with painful temporomandibular
disorders. Craniomandibular Disorders. 2014
136. Hall, TM. (2001). Effects of the Mulligan traction straight leg raise technique on range of movement. Journal
of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 9(3), 128-133.
137. Hall TM. (2004) The flexion-rotation test and active cervical mobility – A comparative measurement study in
cervicogenic headache. Manual Therapy 9(4): 197-204
138. Hall, TM. (2006) Mulligan’s traction straight leg raise: A pilot study to investigate effects on range of motion in
patients with low back pain. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 14(2):95-100
139. Hall, TM (2008) Inter-tester reliability and diagnostic validity of the cervical flexion-rotation test. Journal of
Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 31:293-300
140. Hall TM, (2008). Clinical evaluation of cervicogenic headache. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy,
141. Hall TM, (2010). Long-term stability and minimal detectable change of the cervical flexion-rotation test,
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 40(4): 225-229
142. Hall TM, (2010). The relationship between cervicogenic headache and impairment determined by the cervical
flexion-rotation test, Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2010.09.002
143. Hall TM, (2010). Comparative analysis and diagnostic accuracy of the cervical flexion-rotation test. Journal of
Headache and Pain. DOI 10.1007/s10194-010-0222-3
144. Hall TM 2010. The influence of lower cervical joint pain on range of motion and interpretation of the flexionrotation
test. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy. 18(3):126-131
145. Hall TM (2010) Reliability of manual examination and frequency of symptomatic cervical motion segment
dysfunction in cervicogenic headache. Manual Therapy. doi:10.1016/j.math.2010.06.002
146. Hearn, A. (2002). Cervical Snags: a biomechanical analysis. Manual Therapy, 7(2), 71-79
147. Hendry D. (2014) Effect of Mulligan’s and Kinesio knee taping on adolescent ballet dancers knee and hip
biomechanics during landing. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports.
148. Hing W. (2009) Mulligan’s Mobilization with Movement: A Systematic Review. The Journal of Manual &
Manipulative Therapy. 17:2. p39-65
149. Ho, K (2008) Displacement of the head of humerus while performing “mobilization with movement” in
glenohumeral joint: A cadaver study. Manual Therapy doi:10.1016/j.math.2008.01.008
150. Hoch MC (2010), The effectiveness of mobilization with movement at improving dorsiflexion after ankle
sprain, J Sport Rehabil;19(2):226-32.
151. Hopper D. (2009). The influence of Mulligan ankle taping during balance performance in subjects with
unilateral chronic ankle instability. Physical Therapy in Sport. doi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2009.07.005
152. Hubbard T. (2006) Fibular position in individuals with self-reported chronic ankle instability. Journal of
Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 36(1): 3-9.
153. Hubbard T (2007) Anterior positional fault of the fibula after sub-acute lateral ankle sprains. Manual Therapy,
154. Johnson J. (1997) Mobilisation with movement: an adjunct to traditional treatment of lateral epicondylitis.
Journal of Sports Physiotherapy 1 (25) 76
155. Konstantinou, K. (2002). The use and reported effects of mobilization with movement techniques in low back
pain management: a cross-sectional descriptive survey of physiotherapists. Manual Therapy 7(4):206-214.
156. Mann, T. W. (2001). Causes of complications from cervical spine manipulation. Physiotherapy, 47, 255-266.
157. McDowell JM. (2014) Mulligan Concept manual therapy: standardizing annotation. Manual Therapy;19:499-
158. McLean, S. (2002). A pilot study of the manual force levels required to produce manipulation induced
hypoalgesia. Clinical Biomechanics, 17, 304-308.
159. Michel, P. (2000). Total glenohumeral joint replacement: totally different situation. Manual Therapy, 5(2),
160. Miller, J. (1999). The Mulligan Concept – the next step in the evolution of manual therapy. Canadian
Physiotherapy Association Orthopaedic Division Review, March/April 9-13.
161. Miller, J. (2000). Mulligan concept – management of tennis elbow. Canadian Physiotherapy Association
Orthopaedic Division Review, May/June 45-46.
162. Moulston A, A preliminary investigation into the relationship between cervical SNAGS and sympathetic
nervous system activity in the upper limbs of asymptomatic population. Manual therapy 2006 11 214-224
163. Mulligan, BR. (1957). The acute wryneck. New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy, May 1957, May, 1957.
164. Mulligan, BR. (1974). The painful stiff shoulder. New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy, 4(7).
165. Mulligan, BR. (1982). NAGS – Modified mobilisation techniques for the cervical and upper thoracic spines.
New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy, August 1982.
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